January 27, 2016
The land of Uzbekistan was one of the cradles not only of the East, but also of world civilization, where since time immemorial science and culture have developed. Even in 9 century in Samarkand, Bukhara, Termez, Shash, Khorezm and other cities of Maverannahr the first madrassas have been opened, which later became the largest research centers in all areas.

In XI century the capital city of Khorezm Gurgandj (modern Urgench) was a modern city with high culture. The governor of the state of Khorezm Abul Abbas ibn Mamun, who showed a keen interest in culture and science, strongly supported scientists and poets, architects and artists. At the palace of Khorezmshahs such great thinkers of the East, as the physician Abu Ali Ibn Sina, scholar Abu Raihan Beruni, Ibn Miskavayh historian, mathematician Abu Nasr ibn Iraq, philosopher Abu Sahl Masihi, physician Ibn Hammar and others consisted. Scientific thought in Khorezm has successfully developed until the 13 century.

Pleiad of the great scholars from the Khorezm oasis is impossible to imagine without the luminary of sciences Mahmud ibn Muhammad ibn Umar al-Chagmini al-Khwarizmi (end of 12 - early 13 centuries), who got popularity due to his multi-faceted creativity. His work, like that of other scholars of the Middle Ages, was not confined to one sphere. Familiarity with the works of our ancestors suggests that they covered areas such as astronomy, mathematics, medicine, geodesy, geography, philosophy and other exact sciences.

Proceedings al-Chagmini widespread in the West and East. However, his personal life is still unexplored sufficiently. According to extant meager information, he was born in the village of Chagmin, located near the capital city of Khorezm Gurganj. Medieval Khorezm status as one of the recognized research centers could not but influence formation of world outlook of young Mahmoud.

After receiving primary education in Khorezm, he has went to Samarkand to further enrich his knowledge. Here, the scope of his interests acquired extent of the exact sciences.

The contribution of Mahmoud al-Chagmini in their development is measured primarily by its discoveries in astronomy. Doctrine \"Mulahhas fi al-ha\'ya (\"Digest on astronomy\") is a kind of encyclopedia that has engulfed not only the study of celestial bodies, and other industries. It consists of an introduction and two books - \"On the celestial spheres\" and \"On Earth\". The first of these is set out the doctrine of massive orbiting planets. For the first time it details coordinate system, basis of which is a horizontal plane of observation.

The scientific value of this work lies in the fact that it reflects achievements and successes of thinkers of the East, in particular in Central Asia, and the results of surveys of the Greek school of astronomy. The book al-Chagmini shares his conceptual research on the world around us, the celestial bodies, solar and lunar eclipses, the duration of the light day and night, and other issues. According to him, \"The sun can be considered center of the radiating planets, and planets, especially the Moon, are not self-luminous\". Moon receives light from the sun and reflects it back to Earth, and therefore, the scientist believes that the Sun is the center of the heavenly bodies.

It should be noted that al-Chagmini paid great attention to the application of mathematics in solving astronomical problems. The result of his fruitful work was the development of the basics of spherical trigonometry, basic concepts which are reflected in his work \"Mulahhas fi al-haya\".

Al Chagmini is the author of many other works, including \"The place of the number 9 in mathematics\", \"Comments to the mathematical methods of division of the inheritance.\" In these works he outlined the position of the scientist about his mathematical research and its application in practice, are considered unknown or little-investigated parties mathematical problems.

In astronomical, mathematical and medical works of al-Chagmini cited by many scientists of various ages. They have been used in the classroom in the madrasah of Ulugbek in Samarkand in 15 century. In the works of Mahmud ibn Muhammad wrote detailed comments such famous scholars like Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Ali Husain Jurjani, Kazi-zade Rumi Mirsaid Sharif, who survived.

Thus, the works of Mahmoud al-Chagmini had a great influence on the development of accurate scientific disciplines - mathematics, geometry and astronomy. It is difficult to say in which direction to develop modern science without spiritual and educational heritage of our compatriots, outstanding thinkers of the medieval East.

(Source: Jahon Information Agency)


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